Function and effect of chitin
Chitin exist in nature in lower plants, fungi, algae cells, crustacean shrimp, crab, insects, shells, higher plant cell wall is from crab, shrimp shell used genetic engineering to extract animal polymer, cellulose, was known of the scientific community as "the sixth life element" is therefore identified as functional immune substances in Europe and the United States government. In Ganoderma lucidum, Cordyceps sinensis, and other plants also contains trace "chitosan", but the content is only between 2-7%.
(/ (orgill (Braconno Connaught Barack Chitin. of chitin is the 1811 by French scholars found in 1823 by Odier) from crustacean shell extraction and named white, translated into chitin. The appearance and character: light meters yellow to white, soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid / phosphoric acid sulfuric acid / acetic acid, insoluble in alkali and other organic solvents, insoluble in water. Chitin deacetylation derivatives of chitosan derivatives are soluble in water. Chitin has anti-cancer inhibiting cancer and tumor cell metastasis, improve human immunity and protecting the liver detoxification, especially suitable for diabetes, liver disease, hypertension, obesity and other symptoms, there is conducive to the prevention of cancer cell lesions and adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the treatment of tumor diseases.
Chitin is a rare natural positive positive dietary fiber, natural organic compounds exist on earth, the largest number is followed by cellulose, chitin, chitin biosynthesis nature estimates each year nearly 100 tons of chitin. The earth is the largest amount of nitrogen containing organic compounds, followed by protein only two points, it is sufficient to illustrate the importance of crab chitin containing 40% protein, 30% calcium, 30% Ji Dingzhi (Ji Dingzhi) the process of extracting chitin is: first with dilute sodium hydroxide solution to remove protein, then using hydrochloric acid calcium salt is removed, the rest is Ji Dingzhi. In order to remove acetyl groups from these Ji Dingzhi, with high temperature and long time. The reaction occurs in concentrated sodium hydroxide, can be made of chitin containing amino group. Because Ji Dingzhi is not soluble in alkali, is insoluble in water, it is difficult to profit by the body It can be dissolved in dilute acid and body fluid, and can be used by the human body after the chitosan.
General name of chitin:
Commonly known as: chitin, chitin, (by deacetylation of chitosan is called).
English Name: Chitin;
Chinese Name: chitin, chitin;
Chemical name: beta (1 to 4) -2- acetyl amino -2- -D-;
Alias: chitosan, chitin, chitin, chitin, chitin;
Molecular formula and molecular weight: (C8H13NO5) n (203.19) n
Appearance: appearance is a kind of white amorphous substance, without odor and taste.
Can dissolve in two lithium chloride containing 8% methyl ethyl amide or concentrated acid; insoluble in water, dilute acid, alkali, ethanol or other organic solvents.
In nature, chitin is extensively in lower plants, fungi, shrimp, crabs, insects and crustaceans shell, the higher animals, cell wall.
It is a linear polysaccharide polymer, is the natural neutral mucopolysaccharides, if concentrated alkali treatment remove acetyl is chitosan polysaccharide. Chitin chemically inert, and humoral change, to organise a foreign body reaction, non-toxic, and has anti thrombosis, high-temperature sterilized characteristics. Chitosan polysaccharide is alkalescent polysaccharide, anti acid, anti-inflammatory effect, lower cholesterol and blood lipids.
Pure chitin is a solid, a non-toxic tasteless white or grey white translucent in water, dilute acid, dilute alkali and difficult to dissolve the organic solvents, which limits its application and development. Then people in the study found that chitin with concentrated alkali treatment off its acetyl in becomes soluble chitin, also known as chitosan or chitosan, which chemical name is (1, 4) -2- amino -2- deoxy -D- glucose beta, or poly glucosamine. The chitosan due to the existence of a large number of amino in its molecular structure, thereby greatly improving the solubility and chemical activity of chitin, so it has been widely used in medical, nutritional and health aspects. Chitin is on earth a stock is extremely rich in natural resources, but also in nature so far found only positively charged animal fiber because it. The molecular structure with unsaturated cationic groups, and with negative charge all kinds of harmful substances with strong adsorption effect. Likewise, it also can eliminate the body's "garbage", to prevent disease, prolong life. Because chitin has the unique function, it is European and American scientists known as and protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, equally important, human is the sixth life elements.
Chitin chemical structure and plant cellulose very similar. Are multimers of hexoses, molecular weight are more than 100 million. The basic unit of cellulose glucose, it is from 300 to 2500 glucose residues by beta 1,4 glucoside chain connected to the polymer. Basic unit for chitin is acetyl glucosamine, it is by 1000 ~ 3000 N-acetylglucosamine residues through the chain of p1,4 glucoside interconnected into polymer. And the basic unit of chitosan is glucosamine.
1, molecular weight
Chitin is a high molecular weight substance, its molecular weight is up to more than 100 million. The molecular weight of the higher adsorption capacity is strong, suitable for industrial, environmental protection in the field of application of low molecular weight easily absorbed by the body. Molecular weight is about 7000 of chitosan, containing approximately 30% glucosamine residues.
2, the purity of the acetyl group
Chitin by de acetyl chitosan, chitin because insoluble in acid and alkali is insoluble in water and cannot be used by the body. Increase the solubility therefore can be absorbed by the body acetyl.N- sorbent to more than 55% is called chitosan deacetylation.
(a) can be broken down by enzymes and absorbed
Chitin is cellulose food is not easy to be digested and absorbed. If chitin and vegetables, vegetable food, milk and eggs with food can be absorbed. In plants and intestinal bacteria containing chitosan enzyme and deacetylase. Vivo in the presence of lysozyme and milk, eggs contain lecithin can be the chitin is decomposed into low molecular weight oligosaccharides and absorption. When the decomposition to six molecules of glucose amine physical activity was the strongest, the absorption sites mainly in the large intestine.
(two) dissolved in acid solution to form positively charged cationic groups
Chitin molecule containing amino group (a NH2.), alkaline, in the reaction of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice can generate ammonium, can make the intestinal pH shift to the alkaline side, to improve the acidic. Reaction with positive charge of the cation radical, this is nature, the existence and uniqueness of the positively charged fibers can be eating food.
(three) there is a strong affinity for human cells
Into chitin in the human body is decomposed into basic unit is the composition of the human body, the basic unit of chitosan is glucosamine, glucosamine is found within the body; and the basic unit of chitin is acetyl glucosamine. It is in the transparent qualitative acid basic composition unit. Therefore, chitin on human cells have good affinity, no rejection.
After the dissolution of chitosan was gel state, has a strong adsorption capacity. Because chitin molecules containing hydroxyl, amino polar groups, hygroscopicity strong, can be used as cosmetics moisturizing agent.
(5) chitin is natural cellulose (animal food fiber), no toxicity and side effects, approximate the safety and sugar. (sugar lethal dose for 18G /, and chitin 16g).
(six) can chelate heavy metal ions, as the body of heavy metal ion excretion agent.
In the industry of textile to do sterilization deodorant, through postprocessing attached to the textile fiber, textile is one of the ways to raise the added value, used in the manufacture of underwear, socks, household special functional textiles, medical operation gown / cloth, wound dressing, burn wound dressings or deep processing of artificial skin for the treatment of large area burn. The chitosan is a cationic natural polymer, has the effect of restrain microorganism / good bacteria / fungi, can be used in food preservation, food packaging, no pollution. The chitosan solution sprayed on by cleaning or decortication of fruit, chitosan film formed after the colorless and tasteless ventilation, need not be removed. When edible film can also be used in dyes, paper and water treatment. Can be used in agriculture pesticides, plant Virucides. Fisheries do fish feed cosmetics agent. , hair protection, moisturizing agents and so on. Medical supplies to do contact lenses, artificial skin, suture lines, artificial dialysis membrane and artificial blood vessels and so on.
Special biological function
1, the role of lowering blood lipids
Blood fat is the content of lipids in the blood. The fat in the broad sense refers to neutral fats (triglycerides and triglycerides) and lipids (cholesterol, cholesterol esters and phospholipids).
"Chitin" can produce flooding fat in several ways.
1) and "chitin" hinder digestion and absorption of lipids: into the lumen of the lipids because insoluble in water can not absorb, after emulsification of bile acid, fat into small oil droplets, so as to enlarge the contact area with the pancreatic lipase for fat digestion. Produced in liver bile acid (with negative charge) after biliary tract discharged into the gut lumen and is very easy to gather around it chitin (positively charged) combined with to form a barrier and hinder the absorption of, also by the digestive tract excreted. A lot of bile acid is consumed, thereby hindering lipid absorption, lower blood lipids.
2), "chitin" is conducive to the conversion of cholesterol: cholesterol from food intake and its synthesis. When people mention the Tiger color often talks of cholesterol, cholesterol that contributes to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis disease, and cholesterol as harmful substances. However, everything has its relatively, actually cholesterol is also indispensable substances in our body. He is a brain, nerve, sex hormones, cell membrane material, and an essential fat digestion and absorption of bile acids, cholesterol is converted to cholesterol. Therefore, the value should be kept within a normal range of less. Effect of bile acid transformation caused by indigestion; once the excess will gather in the vessel wall, so that the deterioration of blood circulation, arteriosclerosis and other diseases. The main cause of low density lipoprotein cholesterol for the Carriers of cholesterol in the liver conversion to bile acids, stored in the gallbladder, discharged into the duodenum will participate in lipid digestion absorption process. Thereafter, 95% of the cholesterol is intestinal absorption into the blood back to the liver, namely the so-called bile acid enterohepatic circulation. Intestinal bile acid and chitin binding excreted, enter the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is greatly reduced. The body outside of the liver cholesterol transported into the liver, used in the manufacture of bile acid, and ultimately contributed to the decrease in the number of in vivo cholesterol, lowering blood lipids.
3), increase the content of high density lipoprotein in blood
Lipid and protein binding into lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein will cholesterol by liver transported to the surrounding tissues and induce tissue hardening; high density lipoprotein (HDL) will be shipped in liver tissue surrounding cholesterol. Chitin hypolipidemic, decrease the content of cholesterol in the blood, resulting in reduced the number of low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein number rising helps prevent hardening of the arteries.
2, the role of lowering blood pressure
1), humoral regulation: hypertension caused by many reasons, the body fluid and endocrine regulation occupies an important position. Experimental medical certificate, the body of excessive intake sodium chloride (salt), leads to an accumulation of chloride ion, which resulted in the hypertensive state of the human body. The mechanism for the liver to produce angiotensin prime source in the blood usually does not show the activity, generated in converting enzyme (ACE) under the action of angiotensin I is a low physiological activity of intermediate product, second by converting enzyme (ACE) role in the production of the vascular tension angiotensin II have very strong physiological activity, role in small artery intimal enable